চাপ সৃষ্টিকারী গোষ্ঠীর শ্রেণি বিভাগঃ
In detailed analysis of interest groups, Almond says that there can be four different types of groups. This classification has generally been supported by Hitchner and Levine also. According to Almond, the interest groups are of following types:
i) Institutional Interest Groups;
ii) Anomic Interest Groups;
iii) Associational Interest Groups; and
iv) Non-Associational Interest Groups.
Institutional Interest Groups;
The institutional interest groups are closely connected with various institution, and even political parties. These groups also exist with in the legislatures, bureaucracies, churches, corporations and even armed forces. They are very active in the bureaucracy, for it is
there that most of decision-making is done. They are equally close to legislatures. They form part of a highly organised structure, but this structure has been created for purposes other than what these groups articulate. These groups do not need any other organisation
to articulate their demands. As Almond said, institutional interest groups are “formal organisations, composed of professionally employed personnel, with designated political and social functions other than interest articulation. But, either as corporate bodies or as smaller groups within these bodies (such as legislative blocs…). These groups may articulate their own interests or represent the interest of other groups in the society.” Such groups are very influential and powerful. In some of the third world countries, they are not satisfied only by exercising influence. They even seize power, as, for example, the military clique did in Burma, or Bangladesh (After Sheikh Mujib’s murder), or Pakistan, or Nigeria. These are exceptions. These groups are generally concerned with better conditions for their members.
Anomic Interest Groups
The anomic interest groups, Almond said, are “more or less spontaneous penetrations into the political system from the society.” These groups often appear when normal means of expressing dissatisfaction prove ineffective. They may be concerned with128
religious or linguistic or ethnic disturbances, or demonstrations, even assassinations and hijackings. They are generally characterised by unconventional, usually violent means. Such groups may influence the political system in numerous unconventional ways. They
are occasionally found even in the western developed nations.
Associational Interest Groups
The associational interest groups are closely associated with formally organised institutions. They are functionally specialised, and they articulate the interests of specific groups, such as management, labour, business and agriculture. These groups are found
in those countries where right to association is constitutionally recognised. Some of them have regular paid employees on their roles to influence the concerned institution. These groups are generally concerned with economic interests. The Federation of Economic Organisations, and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and
Industry are some of the examples of associational groups. The associations of teachers, lawyers, doctors and other professionals all come in this category.
Non-Associational Interest Groups
Unlike the well-organised associational system, the non-associational groups are based on factors like kinship, ethnicity, status and religious. They articulate the interests informally and irregularly. They do not have any permanent organisation.
From: Comparative Politics : Issues & Trends; Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Social Sciences.